Home >Current Issue

Volume: 9, Issue: 8, August, 2019
DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2019.90807



Mini Review

Chemical composition and antioxidant studies of underutilized part of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit

Abdul Rohman1, Mohamad Rafi2, Gemini Alam3, Muchtaridi Muchtaridi4, Anjar Windarsih5

  Author Affiliations


Abstract

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) is one of Indonesian fruit with export commodity due to its sweet-sour and pleasant taste. The pulp of this fruit is frequently consumed freshly, while the seed and peel are removed and become a waste. The chemical components contained in mangosteen’s seed and peel, especially xanthones, have been reported as antioxidants either in vitro or in vivo. Several traditional medicine products used the extracts of mangosteen as one of its components; therefore, the characterization of mangosteen extracts through identification of its active components is very important. This review article highlighted the updates on the characterization and antioxidant activities of mangosteen’s seed and peel to prove that the wastes of mangosteen fruit could be advantageous to be developed as functional food as antioxidants. Several databases have been used during performing this review, including PubMed, Scopus, Biological abstracts, chemical abstracts, and Google Scholar.

Keywords:

Mangosteen’s peel, antiradical, underutilized part, in vitro antioxidants, xanthones, DPPH.



Citation: Rohman A, Rafi M, Alam G, Muchtaridi M, Windarsih A. Chemical composition and antioxidant studies of underutilized part of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2019; 9(08):047–052.


Copyright: The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

Aramwit P, Bang N, Srichana T. The properties and stability of anthocyanins in mulberry fruits. Food Res Int, 2010; 43:1093−7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.01.022

Arazo M, Bello A, Rastrelli L, Montelier M, Delgado L, Panfet C. Antioxidant properties of pulp and peel of yellow mangosteen fruits. Emir J Food Agr, 2011; 23:517-24.

Azima SAM, Noriham A, Manshoor N. Anthocyanin content in relation to the antioxidant activity and colour properties of Garcinia mangostana peel, Syzigium cumini and Clitoria ternatea extracts. Int Food Res, J 2014; 21(6):2369-75.

Chen S, Han K, Li H, Cen J, Yang Y, Wu H, Wei Q. Isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice. J Agric Food Chem, 2017; 65:846-57. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b05207

Chen LG, Yang LL, Wang CC. Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana. Food Chem Toxicol, 2008; 46: 688-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.096

Cui J, Hu W, Cai Z, Liu Y, Li S, Tao W, Xiang H. New medicinal properties of mangostins: analgesic activity and pharmacological characterization of active ingredients from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana L. Pharmacol Biochem Behavior, 2010; 95:166-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2009.12.021

Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Baghdadi A, Tayebi-Meigooni A. Alpha-mangostin-rich extracts from mangosteen pericarp: optimization of green extraction protocol and evaluation of biological activity. Molecules, 2018; 23:1852-9. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081852

Genovese S, Fiorito S, Taddeo VA, Epifano F. Recent developments in the pharmacology of prenylated xanthones. Drug Discov Today, 2016; 21:1814-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2016.06.033

Gorinstein S, Poovarodom S, Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Namiesnik J, Vearasilp S, Haruenkit R, Ruamsuke P, Katrich E, Tashma Z. Antioxidant properties and bioactive constituents of some rare exotic Thai fruits and comparison with conventional fruits In vitro and in vivo studies. Food Res Int, 2011; 44:2222-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.10.009

Hait-Darshan R, Grossman S, Bergman M, Deutsch M, Zurgil N. Synergistic activity between a spinach-derived natural antioxidant (NAO) and commercial antioxidants in a variety of oxidation systems. Food Res Int, 2009; 42:246−53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.11.006

Ji X, Avula B, Khan IA. Quantitative and qualitative determination of six xanthones in Garcinia mangostana L. by LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2007; 43:1270-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2006.10.018

Jung HA, Su BN, Keller WJ, Mehta RG, Kinghorn AD. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric Food Chem, 2006; 54:2077-82. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf052649z

Kamaludin NHI, Mun LS, Sa'adi RA. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some tropical fruit peel extracts: extraction conditions optimization of rambutan peel extract. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci, 2016; 11(3):1623-31.

Kusmayadi A, Adriani L, Abun A, Muchtaridi M, Tanuwiria UH. The effect of solvents and extraction time on total xanthone and antioxidant yields of mangosteen peel (Garcinia mangostana L.) extract. Drug Inv Today, 2018; 10:2572-76.

Limphapayom W, Satayawut K, Wattanavichit W, Pisalwadcharin A, Sukhasem S. Development of technologies for xanthone powder production from mangosteen. International Symposium on Durian and Other Humid Tropical Fruits. Acta Hortic, 2017; 1186:185-8. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1186.28

Mohamed GA, Al-Abd AM, El-halawanye AM, Abdallaha HM, Ibrahim SRM. New xanthones and cytotoxic constituents from Garcinia mangostana fruit hulls against human hepatocellular, breast, and colorectal cancer cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol, 2017; 198:302-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.01.030

Muchtaridi M, Puteri NA, Milanda T, Musfiroh I. Validation analysis methods of Α-Mangostin, Γ-Mangostin, And gartanin mixture in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit rind extract from West Java with HPLC. J App Pharm Sci, 2017; 7(10):125-30.

Mulia K, Putri GA, Krisanti E. Encapsulation of mangosteen extract in virgin coconut oil based nanoemulsions: preparation and characterization for topical formulation. Materials Sci Forum, 2018a; 929:234-42. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.929.234

Mulia K, Ramadhan RMA, Krisanti EA. Formulation and characterization of nanoemulgel mangosteen extract in virgin coconut oil for topical formulation. MATEC Web Conf, 2018b; 156:01013. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815601013

Obolskiy D, Pischel I, Siriwatanametanon N, Heinrich M. Garcinia mangostana L.: a phytochemical and pharmacological review [J]. Phytother Res, 2009; 23:1047-65. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2730

Okonogi S, Duangrat C, Anuchpreeda S, Tachakittirungrod S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels. Food Chem, 2007; 103:839-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.034

Ovalle-Magallanes B, Eugenio-Perez D, Pedraza-Chaverri J. Review: medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.): a comprehensive update. Food Chem Toxicol, 2017; 109:102-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.08.021

Palakawong C, Sophanodora P, Pisuchpen S, Phongpaichit S. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) parts and some essential oils. Int Food Res J, 2010; 17:583-9.

Pedraza-Chaverrí J, Reyes-Fermín LM, Nolasco-Amaya EG, Orozco-Ibarra M, MedinaCampos ON, González-Cuahutencos O, Rivero- Cruz I, Mata R. ROS scavenging capacity and neuroprotective effect of α-mangostin against 3-nitropropionic acid in cerebellar granule neurons. Exp Toxicol Pathol, 2009; 61:491-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2008.11.002

Pothitirat W, Chomnawang MT, Supabphol R, Gritsanapan W. Comparison of bioactive compounds content, free radical scavenging and anti-acne inducing bacteria activities of extracts from the mangosteen fruit rind at two stages of maturity. Fitoterapia, 2009; 80:442-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2009.06.005

Pratiwi L, Fudholi A, Martien R, and Pramono S. Design and optimization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of ethyl acetate fraction from mangosteen peel (Garcinia mangostana, L.). Int J PharmTech Res, 2016; 9:380-7. https://doi.org/10.5530/jyp.2017.9.68

Pratiwi L, Sari R, Apridamayanti P. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) with enhanched solubilization of ethanol extract from mangosteen peels (garcinia mangostana, l.) for treatment of topical gangrene foot: Design and optimization. Int J Drug Deliv Technol, 2017; 7:314-9. https://doi.org/10.25258/ijddt.v7i04.10655

Samuagam L, Sia CM, Akowuah GA, Okechukwu PN, Yim HS. The effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and free radical scavenging capacity of selected tropical fruits' peel. Health Environ J, 2013; 4(2):80-102.

Samuagam L, Sia CM, Akowuah GA, Okechukwu PN, Yim HS. In vivo antioxidant potentials of Rambutan, Mangosteen, and Langsat peel extracts and effects on liver enzymes in experimental rats. Food Sci Biotechnol, 2015; 24(1):191-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0026-y

Suksamram S, Komutiban O, Ratananukul P, Chimnoi N, Lartpornmatulee N, Suksamram A. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull, 2006; 54: 301-5. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.54.301

Sumarny R, Sofiah S, Nurhidayati L, Fatimah. 2014. Antioxidant activity of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit rind extract in oral solution dosage form. In International Symposium on Medicinal Plants & Traditional Medicine, Tawangmangu, 2014 June 4-6, Central Java Indonesia, 2014.

Supiyanti W, Wulansari ED, Kusmita L. Test of antioxidant activity and determination of total anthocyanin content in rind of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L). Majalah Obat Tradisional, 2010; 15:64-70.

Surveswaran S, Cai YZ, Corke H, Sun M. Systematic evaluation of natural phenolic antioxidants from 133 Indian medicinal plants. Food Chem, 2007; 102:938-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.033

Suttirak W, Manurakchinakorn S. In vitro antioxidant properties of mangosteen peel extract. J Food Sci Technol, 2012; 51(12):3546-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0887-5

Tachakittirungrod S, Okonogi S, Chowwanapoonpohn S.

Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract. Food Chem, 2007; 103:381-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.034

Tjahjani S, Widowati W, Khiong K, Suhendra A, Tjokropranoto R. Antioxidant properties of Garcinia mangostana L (Mangosteen) rind. Procedia Chem, 2014; 13:198-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2014.12.027

Wang M-H, Zhang K-J, Gu Q-L, Bi X-L, Wang J-X. Pharmacology of mangostins and their derivatives: a comprehensive review. Chin J Nat Med, 2017; 15:81-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30024-9

Weecharangsan W, Opanasopit P, Sukma M, Ngawhirunpat T, Sotanaphun U and Siripong P. Antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Med Princ Pract, 2006; 15:281-7. https://doi.org/10.1159/000092991

Wittenauer J, Falk S, Schweiggert-Weisz U, Carle R. Characterisation and quantification of xanthones from the aril and pericarp of mangosteens (Garcinia mangostana L.) and a mangosteen containing functional beverage by HPLC-DAD-MSn. Food Chem, 2012; 134:445-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.094

Yang Z, Zhai W. Identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins extracted from the seed and cob of purple corn (Zea mays L.). Inn Food Sci Emerging Technol, 2010; 11:169-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2009.08.012

Yu L, Zhao M, Yang B, Zhao Q, Jiang Y. Phenolics from hull of Garcinia mangostana fruit and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem, 2007; 104:176-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.018

Zarena AS, Sankar UK. A study of antioxidant properties from Garcinia mangostana L. peel extract. Acta Sci Pol, 2009; 8:23-34.

Zarena AS, Sankar KU. Xanthones enriched extracts from mangosteen pericarp obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide process. SepPurif Technol, 2011; 80:172-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.04.027

Zhong Y, Shahidi F. Methods for the assessment of antioxidant activity in foods. In: Shahidi F (ed.). Handbook of antioxidants for food preservation 2015, Woodhead Publishing, New York, NY, pp 287-333, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-089-7.00012-9

Zou Y, Kim AR, Kim JE, Choi JS, Chung HY. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of sinapic acid (3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic Acid) isolated from Brassica juncea. J Agric Food Chem, 2005; 50: 5884-90. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020496z

Article Metrics

Similar Articles

Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and antiradical activity of Asplenium africanum (Aspleniaceae) and fruit of Megaphrinium macrostachyum (Marantaceae)
Joseph Privat ONDO, Louis-Clément OBAME, Timoléon ANDZI BARHÉ, Gontran NSI AKOUE, Edouard NSI EMVO and Jacques LEBIBI

Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.)
Md. Amran Howlader, Farhana Rizwan, Shapna Sultana, Mohammad Rakibur Rahman, K. M. Shams-Ud-Doha, Rumana Mowla, Apurba Sarker Apu