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Volume: 9, Issue: 5, May, 2019
DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2019.90514

Research Article

Teratogenic effects of aqueous extract of Ficus glomerata leaf during embryonic development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Abusufyan Shaikh1, Kalidas Kohale2, Mohammed Ibrahim3, Mohib Khan4

  Author Affiliations


Over the past few decades, many reports were published in scientific journals describing medicinal properties of Ficus glomerata (FG). However, its effects on embryonic development and its safety characteristics have not been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to determine lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and study the effect of aqueous extract of FG leaf (AEFG) on developmental abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. LC50 value of AEFG was calculated by using probit analysis. Effect on percentage hatchability, heartbeat rate, total body length, and developmental morphological abnormalities, i.e., delayed growth, abnormal movement, tail detachment, abnormal head-trunk angle, scoliosis/flexure, and yolk sac edema were recorded. AEFG revealed LC50 of 239.88 ppm. The result showed a significant reduction in percent hatchability (p < 0.05), heartbeat rate (p < 0.001), total body length (p < 0.001), and developmental morphological abnormalities in the embryos treated with AEFG. This research can be used in considering the safety of an AEFG extract for their use during pre-conception or early pregnancy period.


Ficus glomerata, toxicity test, teratogenesis, embryogenesis.

Citation: Shaikh A, Kohale K, Ibrahim M, Khan M. Teratogenic effects of aqueous extract of Ficus glomerata leaf during embryonic development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Appl Pharm Sci, 2019; 9(05):107–111.

Copyright: The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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